Critical Element 7 and 8; Surveillance and Resolution

The last two of the eight critical elements of a State’s safety oversight system are:

CE-7. Surveillance obligations. The implementation of processes, such as inspections and audits, to proactively ensure that aviation licence, certificate, authorization and/or approval holders continue to meet the established requirements and function at the level of competency and safety required by the State to undertake an aviation related activity for which they have been licensed, certified, authorized and/or approved to perform. This includes the surveillance of designated personnel who perform safety oversight functions on behalf of the CAA.  (ICAO Doc 9734)


Namibia’s obligations and responsibility for a safe and orderly international civil aviation system does not end with the issuance of licences, ratings, certificates or other approvals. Namibia must also establish a system of continued control and supervision to ensure continued safe aircraft operation.


In the Namibian Civil Aviation Regulations DCA has been given the the authority and responsibility to conduct inspections, analyse operations and identify any safety deficiencies. These inspections should be accomplished on a continuing basis, performed at specified times or intervals.

CE-8. Resolution of safety concerns. The implementation of processes and procedures to resolve identified deficiencies impacting aviation safety, which may have been residing in the aviation system and have been detected by the regulatory authority or other appropriate bodies.

Note.— This would include the ability to analyse safety deficiencies, forward
recommendations, support the resolution of identified deficiencies, as well as take
enforcement action when appropriate. (ICAO Doc 9734)

During the inspections and analysis it is of course possible that safety deficiencies are found. When that happens it is important for the state to have procedures in place to be able to handle the situation.


The eight and last critical element of a State’s safety oversight system includes the possibilities to impose operating restrictions, as well as to grant, suspend, revoke or terminate licences, certificates or other approvals. This is a critical element at the core of all safety oversight activities. A good safety oversight system will provide for the identification of deficiencies and safety concerns and the appropriate action required for resolution. Accident investigations also play a crucial role in the identification of deficiencies and safety concerns.


By introducing and managing all the eight critical elements a state proves it has a safety oversight system that is compliant with the obligations of an ICAO signatory state. Such a system allows for a safe and efficient aviation sector in Namibia as in any other state.



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